Thomas Rogers Kimball (1862-1934), Architect
DBA: T. R. Kimball, Walker & Kimball, and Kimball, Steele & Sandham
Thomas Rogers Kimball was born April 19, 1862 at Cincinnati, Ohio, to Thomas Lord and Mary Porter Rogers Kimball. He was married to Annie Lydia McPhail at Brookline, Massachusetts on September 25, 1889. He died in Omaha, Nebraska on September 7, 1934.
Kimball moved to Omaha with his family in 1871. In Omaha, his father, Thomas Lord Kimball, rose through the ranks of the Union Pacific Railroad to become third vice president of the system and president of the Union Depot Company, in addition to his involvement in a variety of other enterprises. Thomas R. Kimball graduated from Omaha (Central) High School in 1878.
Following two years of study at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln, Kimball began several years of tutoring and formal studies in architecture and the fine arts in Boston, including two years each at the Cowles School of Art and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he was a special student in architecture. Kimball spent a year in Paris studying under the landscape painter Harpignies before returning to Boston to continue architectural study and to embark on a career in publishing, which combined his interests in architecture and the fine arts. He was co-founder of the firm of Bates & Kimball (later, Bates, Kimball & Guild), which founded, edited and published the Technology Architectural Review of M.I.T., predecessor to Architectural Review.[13:326][13:345]
It was while in Boston that Kimball forged a friendship with C. Howard Walker, another architect with strong interests in the fine arts.[o] The friendship ultimately led to the formation of the Walker & Kimball partnership, under which all of Kimball’s early works in Omaha were designed, including their famed Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition of 1898, for which they served as architects-in-chief. That partnership was dissolved in 1899, after which Kimball established his own practice. Though Walker was the senior partner, the work of the firm was largely if not exclusively from Kimball’s hand.[13:346-47][31[l]
In addition to being a master designer, Kimball distinguished himself professionally. He was prominent in the American Institute of Architects, both locally and nationally. He joined the institute in 1900 and was elected a fellow the following year. He served on several important committees over the years, as well as national president from 1918-1920. A proponent of paid and fairly administered competitions for major public buildings, Kimball gained professional praise for his innovative and double-blind competition for the Nebraska capitol, a competition won in 1920 by Bertram G. Goodhue with his equally innovative design.
Kimball was active in Omaha civic life as a member and officer of the Chamber of Commerce and the Omaha Civic League. He was a president of the Association of Professional Men’s Clubs, and was a member of the University Club, the Omaha Club, and the Palimpsest. He was elected to the Nebraska Hall of Fame in 2017.
Compiled Nebraska Directory Listings
Omaha, Nebraska, 1888-1892, 1900-1918, 1920, 1921, 1923, 1925, 1926
Boston, Massachusetts, 1886-1895, 1899-1900.
Educational & Professional Associations
1880-1883: private tutoring, Boston, Massachusetts.[13:345]
1882: clerk, chief engineer’s office, Union Pacific Railroad, Omaha, Nebraska.
ca. 1883-1885: student, Cowles Art School, Boston, Massachusetts.[13:326]
1889: student, Boston, Massachusetts (also listed as residing with his parents in Omaha).
1890: does not appear in either Boston or Omaha directories.
1899-1928: Thomas R. Kimball, Architect, Omaha, Nebraska.
1900-1934: member, American Institute of Architects.
1901: elected a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects.
1918-1920: president, American Institute of Architects.
1920: author of competition program, Nebraska Capitol Commission, new Nebraska Capitol building.
1934: Civil Works Administration representative, selecting artists for federal funding.
1902-1906: employed Henry A. Raapke.
1902-ca. 1907: employed Clarence Wesley (Cap) Wigington as draftsman.
1905-1928: employed Josiah Dow Sandham.
1906-1909: employed Charles W. Steinbaugh as job and squad foreman.
1911-1926: employed Frank C. Ekdahl (1891-1966) as draftsman and construction supervisor.
1913-1915: employed Norman R. Brigham as designer.
1923-1924: employed Emiel J. Christensen as draftsman and assistant superintendent.
1928: employed Floyd E. Henzie as a superintendent.
Buildings & Projects
From 1891-1899, Kimball was in partnership with C. Howard Walker of Boston, Massachusetts, briefly as Walker, Kimball & Best, Architects, and then for an extended period as Walker & Kimball. As designer of the Omaha work of the firm, some of Kimball's principal works include the following. See the firm pages for more detail.
D. C. Patterson cottage (1892), Lake Okoboji, Iowa [15:42]
Sheridan Inn (1892-1893), 856 Broadway St, Sheridan, Wyoming.[15:54]
McCague Building (b. 1893), 1504 Dodge St., Omaha. (DO09:0125-004) 
Apartment Building for Dr John Shelby (1894), 1707 California, Omaha, Nebraska.[11:107] (DO09:0128-018)
Gurdon Wattles House (1894-1895), 320 S. 37th St, Omaha, Nebraska.[15:99] (DO09:0319-010)
Architects in Chief (Walker & Kimball[l]), Trans-Mississippi & International Exposition (1896-1898), Omaha, Nebraska.[15:184][j]
Nebraska Clothing Company Building (1897), 1416 Farnam St., Omaha, Nebraska. (DO09:0123-042)
Kimball’s partnership with Walker ended, by mutual consent, in 1899. Technically accurate attributions for work done during the transition are problematic, with some projects that began under Walker & Kimball being finished by Kimball alone. Nevertheless, Kimball was the principal designer for all of the partnership's Omaha work.[l] Kimball’s association with Walker was reprised two years later, for one more commission.
Kimball practiced independently from 1899-1928, when he formed a new partnership with William LaBarthe Steele and Josiah Dow Sandham. The following principal works are credited to Kimball while he practiced under his own name alone.
Burlington & Missouri River Railroad Train Sheds (1899), Lincoln, Nebraska.[15:288]
Interior atrium (1899), Burlington Headquarters Building, 1004 Farnam, Omaha, Nebraska.[15:299-300][g] (DO09:0123-008) National Register narrative
James McCord Warehouse (1900), 724 S 12th, Omaha, Nebraska.[11:46]
Dwelling for M. Breckenridge (1901), 1111 S 31st St, Omaha, Nebraska.[11:81] (DO09:0204-044)
Directed to prepare plans for an Ag School Building (1902), University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska.
First National Bank (1903-1904), Grand Island, Nebraska.[15:436]
Battle Mountain Sanitarium – Veterans Administration Center (1903-1907), Hot Springs, South Dakota.[15:411-423][m]
Beals Elementary School (1904), 1720 S. 48th St., Omaha, Nebraska.[15:468] (DO09:0423-001)
Monmouth Park School (1903, 1908), 4508 N. 33rd, Omaha, Nebraska.[11:35][15:448] (DO09:0234-001)
Carroll Carnegie Library (1903-1905), Carroll, Iowa [15:434]
Holdrege Carnegie Library (1905-1907), 604 East Ave., Holdrege, Nebraska.[15:511] (PP04-028)
St. Philomena's Cathedral - St. Frances Cabrini Church (1907-1910), 1335 S. 10th St., Omaha, Nebraska.[11:43][15:580] (DO09:0117-002)
Chapel Addition, Duchesne Academy (1909-1910), 3601 Burt St., Omaha, Nebraska. [e][g] (DO09:0323-003)
St. Philomena’s Rectory (1910), 1334 S 9th, Omaha, Nebraska.[11:42]
Baird Store (1912), 1700 Douglas, Omaha, Nebraska.[11:117] (DO09:0124-021)
Nebraska Methodist Hospital (1913-1918), Omaha, Nebraska.
Building (1914), 507 N. 16th St., Omaha, Nebraska. (DO09:0127-014)
St. James Orphanage (1915-1916), Omaha, Nebraska.[15:720]
Hoagland Warehouse (1917), 113-23 S. 9th St., Omaha, Nebraska.[15:734] (DO09:0068-002)
Briggs Pump Office Building (1917), 113 S. 10th St., Omaha, Nebraska. (DO09:0123-074)
Kimball formed the partnership of Kimball Steele & Sandham in 1928. See the firm’s page for subsequent buildings and projects.
W. F. Baxter house (ca. 1928), Omaha, Nebraska.
Fire Station (1931), 7502 N. 30th St., Omaha, Nebraska. (DO09:0248-001)
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In addition to masterful architectural presentation drawings, Kimball was a skilled graphic designer and sketch artist. Samples of his work presented here are from the Thomas R. Kimball Collection, RG3607, Nebraska State Historical Society.
ca. 1887: landscape sketches, Europe, pencil on paper.
1888: design for masthead, Technology Architectural Review, journal of the architecture program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
ca. 1889: draft cover, Brochure Series of the Technology Architectural Review, Bates, Kimball & Guild, Publishers.
ca. 1898: pencil and watercolor study, Administration Arch, Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition.
1902: watercolor rendering, interior of unidentified church.
ca. 1904: watercolor rendering, unidentified Carnegie Library building, probably an early proposal for the library at Holdrege.
n.d.: design sketch, logo for the Kimball Farm, Mercer, Nebraska.
n.d.: watercolor rendering, unidentified dwelling.
Co-editor with H. D. Bates, Technology Architectural Review, vols. 1-3, November 15, 1887-December 31, 1890 (and with I. T. Guild, December 1889-1890).
1891: Giacomo Barozzio Vignola, Practical elementary treatise on architecture; or, Study of the five orders according to Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola…. Trans. T. R. Kimball (Boston: Bates, Kimball & Guild, 1891).
Thomas Kimball, “Address as President of the American Institute of Architects, at the twenty-second annual meeting of the Illinois Society of Architects,” American Architect 116 (1919), 99-102.
Thomas R. Kimball, "Conference of the Interprofessional Relation," address delivered with Dr. Ebersole before the 53rd annual convention of the American Institute of Architects, Thursday evening, May 6, in American Architect 117 (1920), 674.
Thomas Rogers Kimball, FAIA, “The Architectural Sculpture of the Nebraska Capitol: A Review,” The Western Architect 36:6 (June 1927): 88-92.
a. Frank C. Ekdahl (1891-1966), Architect, Omaha, Nebraska, was supervising architect for Kimball on this project. See supplemental letter, application of F. C. Ekdahl for Registration to Practice Professional Engineering and Architecture, Nebraska State Board of Examiners for Professional Engineers and Architects, August 1, 1942, Nebraska State Historical Society RG081 SG2.
b. Founded by Henry D. Bates, the business started in the architectural department of M.I.T. in 1887 as Bates & Kimball. In 1889 it became Bates, Kimball & Guild, and in 1892, Bates & Guild, though the company began publishing the Technology Architectural Review in 1888 at M.I.T., using Kimball’s artwork, as well as a number of the "Brochure Series" of that journal. The journal was later superseded by "Architectural Review". Kimball is also known for his production of a special edition of Vignola for the company, which was published later [Giacomo Barozzio Vignola, Practical elementary treatise on architecture; or, Study of the five orders according to Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola…. Trans. T. R. Kimball (Boston: Bates, Kimball & Guild, 1891)].[13:346-47]
Vosbeck asserts that Kimball left the publishing business in 1889. Kimball’s Boston Directory listings for 1891-1894, however, consistently list his publishing association as Bates, Kimball & Guild for those four years, as well as his architectural associations with Walker, but he also lists his residence as at Omaha those years. The Vignola work also came later.
Greater clarity is possible by looking at the credits of the journal itself. Technology Architectural Review began publication out of M.I.T. in 1887, with its third volume published in 1890-1891. Bates, Kimball & Guild were editors and publishers. The journal was succeeded late in 1891 by Architectural Review, still published by Bates, Kimball & Guild but edited by others. The first two volumes, 1891-1894, occasionally displayed a masthead Kimball originally designed for the previous journal. Beginning with volume three, 1894, the publication credits changed to Bates & Guild.
c. The Lincoln city directory for 1878 lists “T. R. Kembell, student from Omaha,” while 1880 states “T. M. Kimball, student from Omaha.” The rooming address is the same in both cases.
d. Omaha's Medical Arts Building was initiated in the early 1920s by doctors and dentists to provide medical offices. Thomas R. Kimball and John & Alan McDonald were the original architects of the 17-story, U-shaped tower at 17th & Dodge Streets. Construction halted after the steel frame was erected, which stood rusting for three years. After a sheriff's sale and additional litigation, Selden-Breck Construction Co., the original builders, completed the structure in 1925 and 1926. The east wing was reduced to four stories, producing an L-shaped structure. According to an front-page story in Omaha World-Herald of August 27, 1925, "Architects for the completed building are William Spencer Crosby, Chicago, and J. G. McArthur, Omaha." See also "Architects to appeal Medical Arts Decision," Omaha World-Herald (May 28, 1925), 1; and "Excavating for Medical Arts," Omaha World-Herald (January 25, 1920), 16.
e. This building also appears in J. M. Nachtigall’s entry, as he takes credit for Duchesne in multiple sources (see Note [c] on his page). Though roles are undetermined, Nachtigall was working for Kimball at the commencement of this project.
f. Batie’s dates for Walker & Kimball of 1891-1889 appear to be a typographical error, intended to be “1891-1899;” he cites Kimball's scrapbook. Several projects through 1899 and beyond are inscribed, or appear in building permits as, Walker & Kimball.[13:346] Boston Directory listings are inclusive from 1891-1899 for Walker, Kimball & Best, and Walker & Kimball, with Walker listed as practicing alone in 1900. Note also that Walker & Best preceded Walker, Kimball & Best; they are listed with Herbert R. Best in Omaha directories from 1890-1891, and in the Boston Directory from 1888-1891. The Walker-Kimball-Best relationship appears to be worth further investigation.
g. Listed in the National Register of Historic Places.
h. Kimball was given an affiliation with the architecture class of 1889, but did not receive a degree. He did receive the Boston Society of Architects Scholarship while he was enrolled at M.I.T. Note that the Boston Directory did list him as a student in 1889.
i. Steele states that Kimball studied “under various tutors” in Paris, most notably the landscape painter, Harpignies. Though unstated by either Kimball or his partner, William Steele, it has often been assumed, and more often repeated, that his studies in Paris were in architecture at the École des Beaux-Arts.[13:321,346] While Harpignies (the only artist's name preserved in the record) was taking students during the period of Kimball’s residence in Paris, there is no information to connect Harpignies with the École; rather, his tutoring was done in the countryside or in his Parisian ateliers. See the Rehs Gallery biography, “Henri Joseph Harpignies (1819-1916),” (New York: Rehs Galleries, Inc., 2000-2017). Accessed February 21, 2017. http://www.rehs.com/Henri_Joseph_Harpignies_Bio.html
The prospect of Kimball’s attendance at the École, as an architectural student, is resolved in the negative with the publication of Jean Paul Carlhian and Margot M. Ellis, Americans in Paris: Foundations of America’s Architectural Gilded Age, Architecture Students at the École des Beaux-Arts, 1846-1946 (New York: Rizzoli, 2014), wherein Kimball is missing from the complete list of American students provided in the appendices (pp. 241-247).
j. Vosbeck states that the commission for the Exposition was received in 1894.
k. Buildings exhibited at the Columbian Exposition included: #978, McCagne Building, Omaha; #979, Residence, Lincoln; #980, Main façade, Omaha Telephone Exchange; and #981, Main Façade, Omaha Public Library.
l. It is generally believed that the Omaha work of Walker & Kimball was from Kimball’s hand. While it appears that Walker was expected to move to Omaha, to participate in the very large amount of work the firm quickly acquired there, but especially for the Trans-Mississippi work, such never happened. Hand-written notes in the inside back cover of Kimball’s scrapbook address Walker’s absence, and confirm the common knowledge: “I never led any one [sic] to think that I could control Walker’s movements [and was clear] that the work would undoubtedly come nearly all on my shoulder.”
m. Advertisement for the submittal of construction bids dated July 4, 1903; Improvement Bulletin 27:5 (July 4, 1903): 27. Accessed July 7, 2017, via Google Books.
n. This is possibly an M.I.T. student project. The Boston Art Club held a competition for the design of a new club house in 1880, and occupied the winning design in 1882. Only two of the five entrants are known. At the time of the actual competition, Kimball was a young student transitioning between Lincoln, Nebraska and Boston, Massachusetts. See Michelle Leah Hoeffler, "The Moment of William Ralph Emerson's Art Club in Boston's Art Culture," Master's Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 2000. Accessed July 12, 2017. https://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/67166
o. Note that "Walker, Kimball & Company" at 9 Park Street in Boston was listed as a Commercial Art Gallery in the mid to late 1880s. See Appendix A: Map of Boston: Selected Art Significant Locations 1854-1909, in Michelle Leah Hoeffler, "The Moment of William Ralph Emerson's Art Club in Boston's Art Culture," Master's Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 2000, p. 167. Accessed July 12, 2017. https://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/67166
p. Cf. the image of the Mannheimer Brothers Building on an 1896 U.S. illustrated advertising cover. Accessed July 14, 2017. http://www.ebay.com/itm/US-illustrated-advertising-cover-Mannheimer-Bros-1896-St-Paul-Minn-to-Wisc-/152533883683?nma=true&si=0VRnDxDBo8HNNOY2O5v4rklDM%252FQ%253D&orig_cvip=true&rt=nc&_trksid=p2047675.l2557
q. Only the east wing of Kimball's original design was ever built. In 1948 it became the Geography Building; it was razed in 1970.
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1. William L. Steele, “Thomas Rogers Kimball, Past President of The American Institute of Architects, 1862-1934: An Appreciation,” The Octagon (October 1934): 3-4.
2. “Thomas R. Kimball, FAIA, Omaha, Nebraska (Term of Office: April 1918-May 1920),” in R. Randall Vosbeck, A Legacy of Leadership: The Presidents of the American Institute of Architects, 1857-2007. (Washington, D.C.: The American Institute of Architects, 2008): 52-53.
3. Photo of W. F. Baxter house, Omaha, Nebraska, in the Omaha World-Herald (October 14, 1928).
4. “Omaha has 80,000 Church Members: Where Many of them Worship,” Omaha Sunday World Herald (November 12, 1922), Sec 2:1.
5. "An Architectural & Historical Survey of Public Libraries in Iowa, 1870-1940" (MS, Iowa State Historical Department, Division of Historic Preservation, 1980).
6. “D. C. Patterson Cottage,” Omaha Excelsior (July 30, 1892), 1 (photo).
7. "Lincoln Trade Review" 1:48 (1902), 9.
8. "Lincoln Trade Review" 1:50 (1902), 12.
9. Nebraska State Library Commission, Architect & Building Card Files.
10. “Architects in Nebraska to be Covered in Our Survey,” WPA Writers Project, RG515, subj 611.
11. Landmarks, Inc., An Inventory of Historic Omaha Buildings (Omaha: City of Omaha and Landmarks Heritage Preservation Commission, 1980).
12. Gail DeBuse Potter, "The Evolution of Arbor Lodge, 1855-1904," Nebraska History 73 (1992): 66.
13. David Lynn Batie, “Thomas Rogers Kimball (1890-1912): Nebraska Architect,” Nebraska History 60 (1979): 321-356.
14. Oliver B. Pollak, Nebraska Courthouses: Contention, Compromise, and Community [Images of America Series] (Chicago: Arcadia Publishing, 2002), 71. [725.1.P771n]
15. “Thomas R. Kimball: Architect’s Job Record, 1891-1940,” Nebraska State Historical Society Archives, RG3607 (Mfilm; transcription in architects file).
16. City of Omaha Planning Department, Landmarks Heritage Preservation Commission, Database, Query on Architects, May 20, 2002; courtesy of Lynn Meyer, Preservation Planner.
17. The AIA Historical Directory of American Architects, s.v. “Kimball, Thomas R.,” (ahd1023875) Accessed May 18, 2010. http://communities.aia.org/sites/hdoaa/wiki/Wiki%20Pages/ahd1023875.aspx
18. “To Paint Red Cloud,” Lincoln State Journal (January 10, 1943), 12:5.
19. Tim Norris, “City’s Character Found in Its Buildings,” Omaha World-Herald (March 18, 1979), 1F-2F.
20. Boston Directory, 1886-1895, 1899-1900. Boston Athenaeum Digital Collections. Accessed February 23, 2017. http://cdm.bostonathenaeum.org/cdm/landingpage/collection/p16057coll32
21. Catherine Renschler and Elizabeth Spilinek, “Central Hastings Historic District,” Historical News (Adams County Historical Society) 36:5 (2003), 5.
22. Hastings: A Walking Tour Guide of the Historic Downtown Area (Hastings: Cornhusker Press, for the Adams County Historical Society, ).
23. D. Murphy and Penelope Chatfield, “Nebraska Telephone Company Building (LC13:C08-005),” National Register of Historic Places, Inventory-Nomination Form (Lincoln: Nebraska State Historical Society, July, 1978).
24. Henry F. Withey and Elsie Rathburn Withey. Biographical Dictionary of American Architects (Deceased). (Los Angeles: Hennessey & Ingalls, inc., 1970): 344-45.
25. "'Dodge Building' New Name of Medical Arts," Omaha World-Herald (August 27, 1925), 1.
26. “American and British Publishers: Their ‘Trade Marks’ and Some Interesting Data,” Technical Literature II:5 (November, 1907): 447. Google Books. Accessed March 5, 2016. https://books.google.com/books?id=mDU6AQAAMAAJ&pg=PA447&lpg=PA447&dq=Bates,+Kimball+%26+Guild+publish&source=bl&ots=ogj3Q1jLuQ&sig=cTsi9pX6oJYBpxtooxIeB3YcM6c&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjijuKZkqrLAhVDw2MKHes6AN4Q6AEIJDAC#v=onepage&q=Bates%2C%20Kimball%20%26%20Guild%20publish&f=false
27. Kay Logan-Peters, “Administration Building (Old),” in An Architectural Tour of Historic UNL. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska-Lincoln, UNL Libraries, 2005). Accessed August 30, 2016. http://historicbuildings.unl.edu/
28. Robert C. Ripley, “Thomas Rogers Kimball, FAIA – Unsung Hero of the Nebraska Capitol,” Architectural Foundation of Nebraska, Website. Accessed March 2, 2015. http://architecturalfoundation.org/2015/08/thomas-rogers-kimball-faia-unsung-hero-of-the-nebraska-capitol/
29. RG3607, Kimball, Thomas Rogers, 1862-1934, Collection. Nebraska State Historical Society Archives.
30. “World’s Fair Exhibit Buildings of Gigantic Proportions Assigned to Architects,” St. Louis Republic (September 22, 1901): 1. Chronicling America, Library of Congress. Accessed February 25, 2017. http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84020274/1901-09-22/ed-1/seq-1/
31. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. School of Architecture and Planning. Technology Architectural Review. Boston: Dept. of Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Haitha Trust. Accessed, February 26, 2017. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100191434; and The Architectural Review. [Boston, Mass.: Bates, Kimball & Guild]. Haitha Trust. Accessed February 26, 2017. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000598008
32. “Thomas Rogers Kimball,” in Sara Mullin Baldwin and Robert Morton Baldwin, eds, Nebraskana. (Hebron, NE: The Baldwin Company, 1932): 656.
33. “Death calls T. R. Kimball,” Omaha World-Herald (September 8, 1934) 1.
34. “Omaha’s Public Library,” Omaha World-Herald (May 29, 1892): 8.
35. Jack Riddle, “Noted architect designs ‘battle mountain sanitarium’ – hot springs,” The Battle Mountaineer 5:2 (February 1977): 5-7.
36. James B. Haynes, History of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition of 1898. (Omaha: Committee on History, Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, 1910).
37. Howard K. Marcus, “1898 Trans-Mississippi Exposition Helped Build Architect Kimball’s Career,” Sunday World-Herald (September 21, 1997): 4U
38. Franz K. Winkler, “The Architecture of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition,” Architectural Record 15:4 (April 1904): 336-360.
39. Doniver A. Lund, A Great Tradition: The Centennial History of the First National Bank of Grand Island. See “Minnesota professor’s book marks GI bank’s centennial,” Lincoln Journal (March 21, 1981): 6.
40. Department of Fine Arts, World’s Columbian Exposition, to Walker & Kimball, Omaha, March 9, 1893. In Scrapbook, p. 4; Thomas R. Kimball Collection, Nebraska State Historical Society, RG3607.
41. Elizabeth G. Grossman, “Two Postwar Competitions: The Nebraska State Capitol and the Kansas City Liberty Memorial,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians XLV:3 (September 1986): 244-269.
42. “Kimball, Thomas Lord,” in J. Sterling Morton and Albert Watkins, eds. Illustrated History of Nebraska. Vol. 3 (Lincoln: Western Publishing and Engraving Company, 1913): 596-97.
43. David L. Batie, “St. Cecilia’s Cathedral and the Battle Mountain Sanitarium: Thomas Rogers Kimball, Spanish Revival Architecture and the Great Plains,” unpublished manuscript, Black Hills Medical and Health Center Archives, Hot Springs, South Dakota.
44. Suzanne Julin, and Dena Sanford, Alexandra Lord and Patty Henry, eds. “Battle Mountain Sanitarium, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers,” National Historic Landmark Nomination (Draft). (Washington: National Historic Landmarks Program, November 23, 2010). Accessed July 7, 2017. https://www.blackhills.va.gov/battlemtn/BattleMountain.pdf
45. "Thomas Rogers Kimball - Architect of the Sheridan Inn," Historic Sheridan Inn Blog, 2017. Accessed August 10, 2017. https://sheridaninn.com/thomas-rogers-kimball-architect-of-the-sheridan-inn/
46. Kay Logan-Peters, “Museum (Old),” in An Architectural Tour of Historic UNL (Lincoln: University of Nebraska-Lincoln, UNL Libraries, 2005). Accessed August 23, 2017. http://historicbuildings.unl.edu/building.php?b=16
47. Sara Mullin Baldwin, "Thomas Rogers Kimball," Who's Who in Omaha: Biographical Sketches of Men and Women of Achievement (Robert M. Baldwin Corporation, Hebron, Nebraska: 1928), 111.
Cunningham, Harry F. “A Personal Tribute,” The Octagon (October 1934): 4.
Entry in Macmillan Encyclopedia of Architects (New York: Macmillan, 1982).
“Pioneer Omaha Architect Known Best by Buildings,” Omaha World-Herald (April 8, 1967), 19:3.
“Thomas R. Kimball, Omaha Architect,” The Landmark 4:1 (Fall 1978): 1.
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D. Murphy, “Thomas Rogers Kimball (1862-1934), Architect,” in David Murphy, Edward F. Zimmer, and Lynn Meyer, comps. Place Makers of Nebraska: The Architects. Lincoln: Nebraska State Historical Society, November 14, 2018. http://www.e-nebraskahistory.org/index.php?title=Place_Makers_of_Nebraska:_The_Architects Accessed, December 9, 2019.
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